In the 1970's, Chinese Neurosurgeon Jiao Shun-fa developed scalp acupuncture with his colleagues in a North China hospital. They combined the fundamental knowledge of acupuncture with modern medicine's knowledge of neuroanatomy. They wanted to primarily treat stroke patients, but realized they could also readily treat pain problems. A combination of five needles is the mainstay of treatment for spinal disc bulges, herniation or stenosis. Results may be seen within one to three visits.